Understanding quantum many-body states of correlated electrons is one main theme in modern condensed-matter physics. Given that the Fermi-Hubbard model, the prototype of correlated electrons, was recently realized in ultracold optical lattices, it is highly desirable to have controlled numerical methodology to provide precise finite-temperature results upon doping to directly compare with experiments. Here, we demonstrate the exponential tensor renormalization group (XTRG) algorithm [Chen et al., Phys. Rev. X 8, 031082 (2018)], complemented by independent determinant quantum Monte Carlo, offers a powerful combination of tools for this purpose. XTRG provides full and accurate access to the density matrix and thus various spin and charge correlations, down to an unprecedented low temperature of a few percent of the tunneling energy. We observe excellent agreement with ultracold fermion measurements at both half filling and finite doping, including the sign-reversal behavior in spin correlations due to formation of magnetic polarons, and the attractive hole-doublon and repulsive hole-hole pairs that are responsible for the peculiar bunching and antibunching behaviors of the antimoments.