Phase diagram of the quantum Ising model on a triangular lattice under external field


Quantum Ising model on a triangular lattice hosts a finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase with emergent U(1) symmetry, and it will transit into an up-up-down (UUD) phase with C3 symmetry breaking upon an infinitesimal external field along the longitudinal direction, but the overall phase diagram spanned by the axes of external field and temperature remains opaque due to the lack of systematic investigations with controlled methodologies. By means of quantum Monte Carlo at finite temperature and ground state density matrix renormalization group simulations, we map out the phase diagram of triangular quantum Ising model. Starting from the upper BKT temperature at zero field, we obtain the phase boundary between the UUD and paramagnetic phases with its 2D q = 3 Potts universality at weak field and weakly first order transition at strong field. Originated from the lower BKT temperature at zero field, we analyze the low temperature phase boundary between the clock phase and the UUD phase with Ising symmetry breaking at weak fields and the quantum phase transition between the UUD and fully polarized phases at strong fields. The accurate many-body numerical results are consistent with our field theoretical analysis. The experimental relevance towards the BKT magnet TmMgGaO4 and programmable quantum simulators are also discussed.

Phys. Rev. B